T* (which, though not specific predictions, are both valid and useful. T* )Tj (assumption that it was due either to the mismanagement of diplomats, wor\ king in secret )Tj /T1_0 1 Tf 0 18 612 756 re BT 0 -1.2 TD BT /T1_0 1 Tf What is History? (separate article was devoted to this theme in 1916 under the title 'Cleo\ patra's Nose'.' /Artifact <>BDC /Artifact <>BDC /Artifact <>BDC (contrasted, periods of present time into the historical past. (questions about them was correspondingly weak. (This is the real indictment of those who seek to erect a super- historic\ al standard or )Tj /T1_0 1 Tf Technical history is the only kind of history you or \ I are ever likely to )Tj (pessimism and ultra-conservatism, of which I will speak later. (to treat it as a signal example of progress in history. (and answer. In 1910 the American historian, Carl Becker, argued in \ deliberately )Tj /T1_0 1 Tf Of course, for former domes\ tic servants, )Tj (by some other, and from our point of view irrelevant, sequence? 17.602 -2.376 Td (I should perhaps note here that some physicists in recent years have spo\ ken of their )Tj T* 0 -2.376 TD T\ hey are )Tj ET endstream endobj 379 0 obj<>stream T* Or another, this time from Burckhardt on the growth of the mo\ dern state in the )Tj T* Mandeville's 'p\ rivate vices - )Tj (Adam Smith's hidden hand and Hegel's 'cunning of reason', which sets ind\ ividuals to work )Tj The hypothesis of a finite end \ of progress has led )Tj T* (Professor Talcott Parsons once called science 'a selective system of cog\ nitive orientations )Tj The ma\ ss of people )Tj (danger. T* 0 Tc 0 Tw 0 Ts 100 Tz 0 Tr 9 0 0 9 18 780.17 Tm (science'; and in the introduction to the first volume of the history wro\ te that 'we are bound )Tj 0 -1.2 TD The Christian believes that the individual, acting conscious\ ly for his own often )Tj (the steam-mill gives us a society with an industrial capitalist.'' But the changes wrought\ by the twentieth-)Tj (order strongly emphasized the role of individual initiative in the socia\ l order. T* (so forth - and regard historical cause as a category of its own. (the brain of the brain-washer has itself been washed. (It is commonly said by anthropologists that primitive man is less indivi\ dual and more )Tj 0 -1.2 TD ET 0 -1.2 TD ET It is difficult to be\ lieve that any individual )Tj /T1_0 1 Tf T* 0 -1.2 TD (they were supposed to wander at random through the sky, and the regulari\ ty of their )Tj (may have been a husband and a good king. Its present stat\ us, I suggest, is that it )Tj (allege or believe themselves to have acted are in fact adequate to expla\ in their action: this )Tj BT EMC (throughout the nineteenth century; and the method by which science studi\ ed the world of )Tj )Tj But the chan\ ge has two )Tj T* 0 Tc 0 Tw 0 Ts 100 Tz 0 Tr 9 0 0 9 18 780.17 Tm BT Bu\ t he is not required )Tj (Berdyaev or Niebuhr or Toynbeee 'Cynicism' stands for the view, examples\ of which I )Tj Theorists brought up\ on the laws of )Tj /Article <>BDC 0 -2.376 TD 0000000067 00001 f 0 -2.376 TD (listened to some illuminating remarks from a Soviet officer concerned wi\ th the building )Tj W* n 0 -1.2 TD endstream endobj 421 0 obj<>stream (judgements of the historian; and those who insist so fervently on the mo\ ral condemnation )Tj /Article <>BDC (Let us return for a moment to the causes of Robinson's death. 0 -2.376 TD 0 -1.2 TD (planet, to postpone an eclipse, or to alter the rules of the cosmic game\ . T* 1 0 0 rg (called the dialogue between present and past, is a dialogue not between \ abstract and )Tj 0 -1.2 TD T* T* BT /Artifact <>BDC In the first\ place, Freud has )Tj (ordinary life we are more often involved than we sometimes care to admit\ in the necessity )Tj EMC 0000026011 00000 n (theory of knowledge. 0 -2.376 TD T* EMC W* n /T1_0 1 Tf T* 0 18 612 756 re (the purposes of the eternal wisdom'. (coherent to serve as a guide to action. 16.1538 0 0 16.1538 10 90.7103 Tm 0 -1.2 TD T* 0000000329 00001 f (file:///C|/Documents and Settings/Vidula/Local Settings/Temp/Rar$EX00.75\ 0/carr.htm \(6 of 97\)7/20/2006 11:28:45 AM)Tj (has been, put. W* n EMC ET (that I should envy any historian who could honestly claim to have lived \ through the earth-)Tj T* /T1_1 1 Tf (in any automatic or inevitable process, but in the progressive developme\ nt of human )Tj (Today, a bare generation later, we know that Russian machines are no lon\ ger primitive, )Tj EMC 0000018025 00000 n But the only )Tj T* EMC The f\ aculty of reason is )Tj (existing order 'by dragging into prominence the forces which have triump\ hed and thrusting )Tj /Artifact <>BDC T* Clearly a history which has \ played so scurvy a )Tj T* EMC (dogma, the better for his thinking.' /T1_0 1 Tf Personally, I wonder if teaching national history is a good idea. 16.1538 0 0 16.1538 10 752.1256 Tm (interpretation of the events of Queen Anne's reign, it is a valid and, i\ n Trevelyan's hands, a )Tj T* (becoming - something in the future towards which we move, which begins t\ o take shape )Tj Q 0 18 612 756 re (conception: )Tj (our population. BT (psycho-analysis should be taken with a pinch of salt. T* History is a p\ rocess of struggle, in )Tj T* T* 0000030329 00000 n 0 0 0 rg Q (must have been having more trouble with his wife.' (The historian, then, is an individual human being. ( 'will use its political dominance to strip the bourgeoisie step by )Tj This is a familiar\ characteristic of )Tj Q endstream endobj 346 0 obj<>stream Thereafter this note was silent. E. H. Carr Edward Hallett Carr was born in 1892 and educated at the Merchant Taylors' School, London, end Trinity College, Cambridge. EMC BT /Article <>BDC (but endorsed it. BT endstream endobj 429 0 obj(/WHAT IS HISTORY) endobj 430 0 obj<> endobj 431 0 obj<> endobj 432 0 obj<> endobj 433 0 obj<> endobj 434 0 obj[431 0 R] endobj 435 0 obj(file:///C|/Documents and Settings/Vidula/Local Settings/Temp/Rar$EX00.750/carr.htm) endobj 436 0 obj(Ìl»¬”;Lemw”ë£b) endobj 437 0 obj<> endobj 438 0 obj<> endobj 439 0 obj(à>åBÖg>Ì»šW\n%ÐD>) endobj 440 0 obj<> endobj 441 0 obj<> endobj 442 0 obj<> endobj 443 0 obj<> endobj 444 0 obj<> endobj 445 0 obj<>stream 0000004715 00000 n 0000310086 00000 n (by the same historian. (discussions about the rate of industrialisation, or about the best means\ of inducing the )Tj (revolution' was singularly apt. /T1_1 1 Tf (laws of the market, without anyone being conscious of the process. T* (understand it and to master it. (production in the minds of the agents of production and circulation will\ differ widely from )Tj ET (motives - which have guided his choice of theme or period and his select\ ion and )Tj T* (into the state of mind of those who fought the Thirty Years War. The fact is that all human actio\ ns are both free and )Tj 0 -1.2 TD (of regression as well as periods of progress. )Tj T* 'For the hi\ storian', says )Tj /Artifact <>BDC (nineteenth- century heresy that history consists of the compilation of a\ maximum number )Tj T* The historian )Tj But it was )Tj (earliest years is moulded by that society. I \ suspect that even )Tj Perhaps, given the context of his subject matter and the Cold War environment he was increasingly seen as an apologist for the USSR and its policies. (continuously asks the question 'Why? (belonged, like prehistoric peoples, to nature rather than to history. Q ET (or indirectly - and more often directly than indirectly - at the expense\ of others. History is, by and lar\ ge, a record of what )Tj T* T* 0000204368 00000 n (to know why they happened, or be content to say that the Second World Wa\ r occurred )Tj Q /T1_0 1 Tf BT T* T* 0 -1.2 TD T* (/WHAT IS HISTORY)Tj 0000124676 00000 n Smith's action had a cause, or a number of \ causes; but in so far )Tj /T1_1 1 Tf (The transition from the eighteenth century to the modern world was long \ and gradual. The solution of the problem of accident in \ history must, I )Tj (description of this as a symptom of \221national maturity'.' (explained in one of his unpublished manuscript notes: 'The Whig governed\ by )Tj This \ was an extension )Tj (individuals wanted war, or fewer wanted peace, in the first half of the \ twentieth century )Tj (of the rise of the modern state and the shift in the centre of power fro\ m the Mediterranean )Tj Sociology is concerned with \ historical )Tj (/WHAT IS HISTORY)Tj As any working )Tj (though not to d remain safe for long - from all these dangers. T* (twofold light that the student of history must learn to regard him. 0 -1.2 TD (covered a series of revolutionary and catastrophic changes in the fortun\ es of his country. 0000020828 00000 n T* T* 0000000251 00001 f (At an earlier stage we saw that history begins with the selection and ma\ rshalling of facts )Tj 0 -1.2 TD (those who created it have become accustomed to rapid further movement an\ d because they )Tj I do not wish to suggest that the in\ ferences of the )Tj T* (societies, every one of which is unique and moulded by specific historic\ al antecedents and )Tj To learn about the present in\ the light of the )Tj BT EMC Professor Cox's volume does very good justice to a man of enormous professional and intellectual range. T* /T1_0 1 Tf /T1_0 1 Tf Even when he talks nonsense, h\ e earns our )Tj 0 -1.2 TD (separates the geologist from the physicist. (empirical school, clearly marks the separateness of the two processes by\ defining a fact as )Tj (easy or self-evident. T* (that the arguments for exclusion come not from scientists anxious to exc\ lude historians )Tj T* (notwithstanding, the whale is not a fish. /T1_0 1 Tf /T1_0 1 Tf BT In an early essay he said of his teacher Dollinger\ : 'He would not write )Tj 0 -1.2 TD (words of a great scientist: 'And yet - it moves. 0000023598 00000 n ENGLISH, HISTORY CLASSIC Addeddate 2016-02-16 03:05:35 Identifier WhatIsHistory-E.H.Carr Identifier-ark ark:/13960/t6sz0gk6j Ocr ABBYY FineReader 11.0 Ppi 300. plus-circle Add Review. T* 0 -1.2 TD (liked the phrase, for he embroidered it later in a longer passage: )Tj (Meinecke of )Tj (when they read history, of letting their imagination run riot on all the\ more agreeable )Tj Of course, Robinson was killed becau\ se he was a )Tj Wh\ ether to hold )Tj (with the option to accept or reject it. T* (part of the cast of industrialisation. (Hitler or Stalin - or, if you like, on Senator McCarthy - this is becaus\ e they were the )Tj (history; and excellent books can be written about the past which are not\ history. T* 9 0 0 9 18 7.17 Tm (knowledge and experience, but increased mastery of man's environment in \ the broader )Tj 0 -1.2 TD (apply it. /T1_0 1 Tf 0000244740 00000 n (questions of religion and morality, is thereby distinguished from scienc\ e in general and )Tj (compensated by other forms of chance. The )Tj What Is History Eh Carr Pdf Download. T* 0 -1.2 TD /T1_0 1 Tf 0 -1.2 TD 0 -1.2 TD T* /T1_1 1 Tf EMC T* (false, and rests on a crude confusion between recognition of the irratio\ nal element in )Tj T* (History, in Burckhardt's words, is 'the record of what one age finds wor\ thy of note in )Tj W* n (in the history of cricket. (uninhibited cult of individualism. T* T* BT (Croce began to have a considerable vogue in France and Great Britain. T* It is by no )Tj BT 0000000324 00001 f Moreover, when \ we examine these )Tj The practical content of hyp\ othetical absolutes )Tj T* 0 i T* (with those who, whether victorious or defeated, achieved something. (himself with it in any systematic way; and Gibbon was quick to unmask th\ e reason. T* (/WHAT IS HISTORY)Tj 0 -2.376 TD T* )Tj Of course, it also demonstrates the antediluvian nature of much history thinking today among those who regard themselves as the only historians who know what is proper and what is not in doing history. (of the Weimar Republic, Hitler's obsessional character, and so forth - t\ he bankruptcy of a )Tj 0 -2.376 TD (measure of interrelation and interdependence between them. T* (shaped, cancelled, as I go on reading. /Article <>BDC T* T* )Tj (laissez-faire economy to a managed economy \(whether a managed capitalis\ t economy or a )Tj T* T* /Artifact <>BDC (majority of the population. In every society, more or less coercive measures are applied by\ ruling groups to )Tj /T1_0 1 Tf /T1_0 1 Tf 0 -1.2 TD T* ET (was difficult to reconcile with the traditional empiricist theory of kno\ wledge. (greatest British historian to emerge on the academic scene since the Fir\ st World War: Sir )Tj ( are all, for )Tj (What, then, do we mean when we praise a historian for being objective, o\ r say that one )Tj /T1_0 1 Tf W* n /T1_0 1 Tf (medium of their interpretations, and testing their interpretations by th\ e facts; and ways in )Tj (III after it had succeeded; Marx, who rejected the criterion of abstract\ moral principles, )Tj /Artifact <>BDC This sets up a relation, \ which is peculiar to )Tj 9 0 0 9 18 7.17 Tm (initiative has passed from one group, from one sector of the world, to a\ nother : the period )Tj 0 -1.2 TD The )Tj (society, he never sought to answer, or even to ask.'" T* T* (Weltburgetthum )Tj T* (of their means of production,' wrote 1Marx in the preface to his )Tj ET (when progress - or civilisation - began. T* T* The Darwinian revolution appeared to remove all embarrassments \ by equating )Tj ET ET T* (file:///C|/Documents and Settings/Vidula/Local Settings/Temp/Rar$EX00.75\ 0/carr.htm \(12 of 97\)7/20/2006 11:28:45 AM)Tj Or take again \ Trotsky's comment )Tj The author, indeed, leave\ s the reader with )Tj (either of existing forces or of forces which he helps to create by way o\ f challenge to )Tj T* (novels lies in the fact that nothing that happens has any apparent cause\ , or any cause that )Tj ET 0 -1.2 TD (equality as at once the past and the future of their history, this singl\ e discovery would give )Tj BT T* T* EMC The facts are really not at all like fish on the fishmong\ er's slab. (shortcomings, as a 'genius' and 'the greatest example in the last centur\ y of a politician of )Tj 0 -1.2 TD 0 0 0 rg 0 -1.2 TD /T1_0 1 Tf (man as an individual is more or less misleading than the view of him as \ a member of the )Tj q (wars occur because kings keep pet monkeys, or that people get run over a\ nd killed on the )Tj The historian does not deal in absolutes of thi\ s kind. (d'ou prevoyance; preyance, d'ou action ',)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf T* T* T* (intellectual laziness or low intellectual vitality. 0 -1.2 TD (of History, is one of those who confuse accident in this sense with an a\ bsence of causal )Tj 0 Tc 0 Tw 0 Ts 100 Tz 0 Tr 9 0 0 9 18 780.17 Tm (consciousness of the classless society. 0 -1.2 TD EMC How far are )Tj (actualizes his age. BT (almost exactly the same words. EMC /T1_0 1 Tf 0 -2.376 TD (philosophy of utilitarianism, Morley's essay )Tj (history as a chapter of accidents has coincided with the rise in Prance \ of a school of )Tj BT (remoter consequences, desire To register their protest against it; and t\ his takes the form, )Tj 0 Tc 0 Tw 0 Ts 100 Tz 0 Tr 9 0 0 9 18 780.17 Tm T* BT T* 0000023161 00000 n 0 -1.2 TD T* (It is unfortunate, though very natural, that the history of this period \ has so generally been )Tj /T1_1 1 Tf 0 -1.2 TD /T1_0 1 Tf (been known to somebody, had survived to become tire facts of history. S\ ociology, in its )Tj BT 0000038405 00000 n 0 -1.2 TD (establish these basic facts rests not on any quality in the facts themse\ lves, but on an a )Tj (of the English- speaking world in the last 400 years has beyond question\ been a great )Tj T* (general. EMC (generalization permits us to construct some vast scheme of history into \ which specific )Tj 0000000207 00001 f (probe deeper. T\ o say that the )Tj (outlook of our society since 1914. EMC T* (known it. The new structure of our industry and the new str\ ucture of our )Tj q In an earlier lec\ ture I drew attention )Tj T* This was the medieval vi\ ew of history. T* (discussion, as a great and progressive achievement. (their own personal desires, are too familiar to require quotation. EMC The two roles \ are, indeed, )Tj I do not know how long it was after the \ invention of )Tj (It is a hypothesis which, though modified to some extent in the course o\ f the inquiries )Tj 1832 words (7 pages) Essay . (is the office of history ... are generally recognised as devoid of histo\ rical sense. The historian collects them, takes them home, and cooks a\ nd serves them in )Tj The George Macaulay Trevelyan Lectures Delivered in the University of Cambridge, January-March 1961. /Artifact <>BDC /Artifact <>BDC 0 18 612 756 re T* (Let us take a quick look at what has happened to Asia in the present cen\ tury. T* (social scientist or of the historian can match those of the physical sci\ entist in precision, or )Tj Profes\ sor Popper and )Tj EMC T* /Artifact <>BDC EMC T* EMC (heavily on the underprivileged as the cost of innovation on those who ar\ e deprived of their )Tj (which governed them. Is the object of the histori\ an's inquiry the )Tj Or contrast the values promulgated today by, say, the Christian\ church in Spain, )Tj (after a hundred years of only minor local wars, we have had two major wo\ rld wars. T* /Article <>BDC 0000000106 00001 f T* Later the cult was connected with the rise \ of capitalism and of )Tj Q 0000000157 00001 f 0000000225 00001 f /Artifact <>BDC (nostalgic romanticism of old men and old societies, a symptom of loss of\ faith and interest )Tj T* (individuals, but on events, institutions, or policies of the past. Indeed, it is a special honor for me, a card-carrying realist, to pay tribute to one of the most important realist thinkers of all time. 0000019177 00000 n (abandoned Marxism. 0 -1.2 TD T* EMC Russians, Englishmen, and Americans readily \ join in )Tj ET (It is a unique opportunity of recording, in the way most useful to the g\ reatest number, the )Tj (is not to record, but to evaluate; for, if he does not evaluate, how can\ he know what is )Tj 2006-07-20T11:28:45+05:30 (in which history is moving, but have consciously or unconsciously believ\ ed that this )Tj T* BT BT EMC The \ development of )Tj meaningless to the historian, unless he can understand the th\ ought that lay )Tj (that capacity to adapt ourselves to our environment, and to adapt our en\ vironment to )Tj (certain neglected truths. (wrote his own epitaph, in the introductory note to the first volume of t\ he )Tj (burning of midnight oil in their separate garrets, I shall not think it \ necessary to contest the )Tj 0 -1.2 TD W* n endstream endobj 352 0 obj<>stream W* n The two factors condition each other. It is re\ cognized that )Tj 0 -1.2 TD 0000000532 00000 n /T1_0 1 Tf The disciple\ s repeat the )Tj T* 0 -1.2 TD (education and political consciousness, to millions of the population of \ Asia and Africa, is )Tj (file:///C|/Documents and Settings/Vidula/Local Settings/Temp/Rar$EX00.75\ 0/carr.htm \(25 of 97\)7/20/2006 11:28:45 AM)Tj (accumulating it. Q (file:///C|/Documents and Settings/Vidula/Local Settings/Temp/Rar$EX00.75\ 0/carr.htm \(77 of 97\)7/20/2006 11:28:45 AM)Tj (such law would be to the effect that the group - call it a class, a nati\ on, a continent, a )Tj (But it is in periods of radical change that the issue appears in its mos\ t dramatic form; and )Tj (servants and now do their own washing- up'.' T* T* T* Professor Toynbee described Mus\ solini's )Tj 0 -2.376 TD )Tj (history. This is, after all, not very abstruse.